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Illuin-valar-lamp

Middle-earth during the Years of The Lamps

The Valar (Quenya; singular Vala) were the Powers of Arda who lived on the Western continent of Aman.

History

The Valar were the fourteen Ainur who, after being molded of Eru's thought, entered Arda after its creation, to give order to the world and combat the new evils of Melkor. They had helped to begin the shaping of Arda through the music of Ilúvatar, and often referred to one another as "brother" or "sister". Each of the Ainur had added his or her own part to the music creating the world incarnate, save for Melkor, who at the time was counted as the strongest of them. His vision of what Arda should have been differed from Eru's, which led to his banishment and great rebellion that would cause most of the ills of the world of Arda.

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Varda and Manwë, by Ted Nasmith

The fourteen Valar originally dwelt on Almaren, a hidden island on the "Great Lake", but after it was destroyed and the earth was reshaped, long before the Awakening of the Elves, they relocated to Aman and founded the realm of Valinor.[1] They would become known as the 'Powers of the World', though rarely directly intervening in the world's course of events. Eru instead gave them delegation of Arda, and so at Valinor they constructed the golden city of Valimar, their own mansions dispersed cross the plain; and Máhanaxar, the "Ring of Doom", at which they would confer and hold counsels.

Eru created for them lesser heavenly beings named the 'Maiar', who were their servants. Though subordinate to the Valar, the Maiar were powerful nonetheless, and included Melian, Sauron (named Mairon), Olórin (later named Gandalf) and the other Istari, and those who would become the Balrogs. Most Maiar were associated with particular Valar: Ossë and Uinen, the "powers of the oceans", served under Ulmo, while Curumo (much later known as Saruman), served Aulë the Smith. Sauron also served Aulë before he was corrupted by Melkor.

It was originally Melkor's intention to rule Arda for himself, but Manwë, the superior of the Valar, called other spirits to help him confront Melkor. (Among these were the other Valar and the Maiar.) Melkor withdrew from Arda after the short War for Sake of the Elves, and the Valar continued their creation and furnishing of the World, while Melkor plotted to return and regain dominance. In time, once he returned in secret and ruined the Two Trees of Valinor with Ungoliant, Valinor lost its light, and the Valar eventually set to creating the Sun and Moon in the sky.

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Depiction of Mandos and Lórien, the Fëanturi

The War of the Jewels was prompted after Fëanor refused to forfeit his Silmarils to the Valar, for the rekindling of the Two Trees. He ended his and the Ñoldor's allegiance with the Valar, and bore a new conflict between the Elves and Melkor.[2] The Valar soon fortified their realm, and brought about the "Hiding of Valinor", preventing Melkor and Fëanor and his followers from entering. The conflict between Melkor and the Valar was not resolved until the war's climax, during which the Valar came physically into Beleriand, helped conquer Melkor's forces at Angband, and captured him. He was taken to Aman and cast behind the Door of Night.[3]

In the Second Age, the Valar created anew the island of Elenna in the middle of the Sea, for the noble peoples of the Edain who had resisted and endured the war against Melkor. On this island was established the kingdom of Númenor, which lasted three millennia until their king Ar-Pharazôn attempted to contravene the Ban of the Valar. The Valar sank the island, and the living Númenóreans sailed eastward, and settled Middle-earth.

Once Sauron had begun to regain power in Middle-earth after his defeat in the War of the Last Alliance, the Valar sent an order of five Maiar, the "Istari", unto Middle-earth, to provide a strong opposition to Sauron until his final destruction.

Names

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Portrayal of the Aratar

These are the names of the Valar as they were known to the Eldar. In Middle-earth, they were known by other names of Sindarin origin; for example they called Varda Elbereth. Men knew them by many other names, and sometimes worshiped them as Gods. The Elves called Varda, the creator of the stars, Elentári. The dwarves called Aulë, their creator, Mahal. The Ents called Yavanna, their creator, Kementári. It should be noted that, with the exception of Oromë, the names listed below are not actual names but rather titles: the true names of the Valar are nowhere recorded. Male Valar are called "Lords of the Valar"; females are called "Ladies of the Valar," or Valier. Among these exist six married couples, with only Ulmo and Nienna remaining single.

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Tuor meeting the Vala Ulmo, in a painting by John Howe

Lords of the Valar

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Yavanna, the Queen of the Earth, by Sedeptra

Ladies of the Valar

  • Varda Elentári, the Star-queen and the Queen of the Valar
  • Yavanna Kementári , the Fruit-Giver and the Lady of Earth
  • Nienna, the Weeper and the Lady of Mercy
  • Estë the Gentle, Lady of Healing and Rest, and spouse of Irmo
  • Vairë, the Weaver and spouse of Mandos
  • Vána, the Ever-young and spouse of Oromë
  • Nessa, the Dancer and spouse of Tulkas

Other names

The Aratar (Sindarin: Exalted) or High Ones of Arda were the eight greatest of the Valar: Manwë, Varda, Ulmo, Yavanna, Aulë, Mandos, Nienna, and Oromë. Melkor, the most powerful of all, is not counted among them. Lórien and Mandos were brothers, and would be referred to together as the Fëanturi or "Masters of Spirits".

In earlier versions of the legendarium, "Gods" was a word used often to refer to them [4], and Valur and Valir for a short time denoted male and female Valar.[5]

Powers and abilities

As with the other Ainur, the powers of the Valar were very mysterious or ambiguous.

The Valar appear to have had similar, though superior, abilities to the Maiar, such as the control of light and of fire. Clear abilities included shifting forms and placing Man or Elves in a trance with their presence. Manwë and Ulmo could both control and perceive massive volumes of matter at once, perhaps giving evidence of advanced intelligence. Yavanna and Nessa’s efforts combined could create Laurelin, a tree which had at the very least thousands of Sun-like flowers, and Telperion, which produced light "for millions of stars". Varda could lift enormous stars weighing billions of metric exatons, on which speculation is based that she, if not all Valar, could move at any desired speed through space.

See also

Translations around the World

Foreign Language Translated name
Amharic ቫላር
Arabic فألار
Belarusian Cyrillic Валар
Bengali বলার
Bosnian Valari
Bulgarian Cyrillic Валари
Catalan Vàlar
Chinese (Hong Kong) 維拉
Croatian Valari
Estonian Valarid
Georgian ვალარები
Greek Βάλαρ
Gujarati વેલર
Hebrew ולאר
Hindi वलर
Hungarian Valák
Japanese ヴァラ
Kannada ವ್ಯಾಲರ್
Kazakh Валар (Cyrillic) Valar (Latin)
Korean 발라
Kyrgyz Cyrillic Валар
Macedonian Валар (Cyrillic) Valar (Latin)
Marathi वलर
Mongolian Валар (Cyrillic) Valar (Latin)
Nepalese वाल्टर
Pashto ویلر
Persian والار
Polish Valarowie
Russian Валар
Serbian Валари (Cyrillic) Valar (Latin)
Sindhi والار
Sinhalese වාලර්
Tajik Cyrillic Валари
Tamil வளர்
Telugu వళర్
Ukrainian Cyrillic Ва́лари
Urdu والر
Uzbek Валар (Cyrillic) Valar (Latin)
Yiddish וואַלאַר

References

  1. The Silmarillion, Quenta Silmarillion, Ch. I: "Of the Beginning of Days"
  2. The Silmarillion, Quenta Silmarillion, Ch. IX: "Of the Flight of the Noldor", pg. 85
  3. The Silmarillion, Quenta Silmarillion, Ch. XXIV: "Of the Voyage of Eärendil and the War of Wrath"
  4. The History of Middle-earth, Vol. I: The Book of Lost Tales Part One, Index, entry "Gods"
  5. The History of Middle-earth, Vol. I: The Book of Lost Tales Part One, chapter II: "The Music of the Ainur", Notes, pg. 61