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Tûl Isra was founded in the early Second Age. A trade route branching from the Camel Road near the confluence of the Sîresha and Maudar rivers, even then passed by the city on its way to the Tûr Betark and through the mountains to the Utter South.
The original city was located northwest of the Hayk Sarzain and was inhabited until its destruction in SA 1933, by the forces of Ankhôril, during his conquest of Sirayn. Later in the Second Age, the village of Mumett was founded on the eastern shore of the lake. In TA 83, members of clan Másra from the Tamet Bazain refounded Tûl Isra south of the village on the east bank. The new location boasted a more defensible bluff which would augment city walls. Some of the building materials were taken from the nearby ruins, but much of the required stone was quarried in the Bru Isra.
Initially, a thick wall, twenty feet high, was raised, while residences, shops, a large bazaar and open market, and some administrative offices were constructed within. Gates located on the southern and western edges of Tûl Isra pierced the defensive rampart. In time, the population out-grew the city. The administrative buildings were moved into a new expansive plaza which included a palace. Construction continued for a decade in order to complete the complex. During the final phases, the city was expanded to the south by the addition of a new outer wall, and the inner walls were strengthened. Centuries later, following the slow accumulation of workshops, artisans’ homes, and dining establishments outside the northwestern walls, another section of outer wall was constructed. Throughout the city’s history, continued construction, renovation, and the collapse of old buildings have changed the interior streets and neighborhoods.
Tûl Isra may appropriately be called the melting pot of Greater Harad. Although the eastern influences prominent in the seaport are absent, products from any of the cultural groups residing in southern Endor (whether rubies set in petrified wood from Gan, carved Mûmakani ivory, prayer beads from Dûshera, or fosewood screens and divans from the Seven Dominions) are readily obtained in the capital’s bazaars. Despite the presence of imports, local artisans thrive. Copper, bronze, and brass fittings for tools, riding gear, chariots, construction work, and furnishings from Tûl Isra surpass those manufactured anywhere else. And many of the remedies distilled by the capital’s herbalists are unique within Greater Harad.