- For the book, see The Peoples of Middle-earth. For the full list of peoples see List of Middle-earth peoples
The Peoples and Races of Arda refers to all the peoples and races in the world of Arda.
The Free RacesEdit
- Main article: Ainur
Ainur were angelic spirits that were a direct off-shoot of the mind of Eru Ilúvatar himself. There were two groups of Ainur: the Valar and the Maiar. These two groups differed in power, not in their essential nature.
- Main article: Valar
- Main article: Maiar
The Maiar were angelic spirits like the Valar but of lesser degree and more numerous. They were sometimes referred to as the people of the Valar. Gandalf, Melian, Saruman, and Sauron were all Maia. They are analogous to Angels.
- Main article: Dwarves
Dwarves were short, stocky, hairy humanoids, good at forging and mining. They were created by Aulë the Smith, had their own language, kept secret from others, and writing, though most, if not all, spoke and wrote the Common Tongue of Westron as well. Female Dwarves were rare, and looked so much like male Dwarves that many Men believed there are none.
The Dwarves were often miners and preferred to live in mountains and caves. Dwarves in Middle-earth lived in Erebor, the Lonely Mountain, The Iron Hills, and the Blue Mountains, and once lived in Moria or Khazad-dum in the Misty Mountains. They mined and worked precious metals throughout the mountains of Middle-earth. The Dwarven language was created by Aulë, and was known as Khuzdul. The seven different groups of Dwarf-folk originated in the locations where the Seven Fathers of the Dwarves first awoke before the First Age.
- Main article: Men
Men were a mortal race of people and were the Second Born of the Children of Ilúvatar. They awoke in the First Age and spread throughout Middle-earth. Most, but not all, became allies of the elves against the Dark Lord Morgoth. Men were the dominant race on Middle-earth by the time of the War of the Ring. The Men of Gondor came across the sea from Númenor but the other races of Men were already there. Under King Elessar, the Free Peoples of Gondor and Rohan united and conquered the Easterlings and Haradrim thus uniting all the races of Men. They spoke Westron in most cases, though some cultures maintained their own tongue, such as Rohirric.
During the time of the Lord of the Rings, Men in Middle-earth were located in many locations, with the largest group of free men located in the countries of Gondor and Rohan. There were also free men at the village of Bree, at Laketown and Druadan forest. Men which served the evil powers of Sauron or Saruman included the men of Dunland, Rhun, Harad and Umbar. Men bear the so-called Gift of Men, mortality. When the island of Númenór fell, only the Faithful escaped and founded the twin kingdoms of Gondor and Arnor.
- Main article: Easterlings
- Main article: Haradrim
Haradrim were a race of Men, similar to the Easterlings and possibly the Variags of Khand.
- Main article: Variags
Variags were a race of Men from the land of Khand, possibly related to the Haradrim and Easterlings.
- Main article: Númenóreans
Númenóreans were decedents of the Edain. They were high men of the Isle of Númenór or Westernesse who prospered and thrived until their corruption and fall towards the end of the Second Age.
- Main article: Black Númenóreans
Black Númenóreans were men of Númenórean heritage who were descended from the corrupted King's Men group.
- Main article: Rohirrim
- Main article: Beornings
The Beornings were an offshoot of Men. Though they took the forms of men in peace, they were considered a different race due to their ability to transform into Bears.
Bears were a race of mighty beasts living in Rhovanion.
- Main article: Eagle
The Eagles were immense flying birds. They were intelligent and could speak to men and elves. The Eagles fought alongside the army of the Valar, Elves, and Edain during the War of Wrath at the end of the First Age. In the Third Age, Thorondor's descendants Gwaihir and Landroval lived in an Eyrie to the east of the Misty Mountains in Wilderland.
- Main article: Elves
Elves were an immortal race of people, the First Born of the Children of Ilúvatar. They awoke during the Years of the Trees, and quickly spread throughout Middle-earth and many migrated into the Far West at the invitation of the Valar. They were divided between the Wood-elves or East-elves who eventually settled in Mirkwood, and the West-elves or the Eldar or Noldor who settled in the lands west of Middle-earth. There were also the Sindar or Grey-elves. Many of the Noldor in Middle-earth lived in Lindon and Hollin. The Sindar lived in Lorien as well also in Lindon. Elves loved music and beauty and are described as the fairest and wisest of all creatures in Middle-earth, lovers of art (particularly songs) and had beautiful voices. Elves have sharp senses, and many of them were excellent archers. They were immortal and did not age nor catch disease, though they could be killed or die of grief.
- Main article: Ent
Ents, also known as Treeherders, were an ancient race of tree-like creatures who cared for the forests and were their shepherds, and were similar in size and physical aspect to the trees they shepherded. They had great strength and they lived a long time. By the time of the War of the Ring, there were few Ents left because the Entwives had disappeared and many Ents had grown sleepy and "tree-ish," according to Treebeard.
- Main article: Hobbit
Hobbits, an offshoot of the race of men, were a variety of Middle-earth people shorter than men and characterised by curly hair and large hairy feet. Many hobbits lived in The Shire as well as Bree, whence they were thought to have migrated from the vales of the Anduin. They preferred an unadventurous life of farming, eating, and socializing. There were three main types of Hobbits: The Harfoots, the most numerous, were almost identical to the Hobbits as they are described in The Hobbit. The Stoors had an affinity for water, boats and swimming. The Fallohides were said to be an adventurous people.
Hobbits, smaller than Dwarves, are presumed to be the last race to appear on Middle-earth, though Tolkien did not write of their ultimate origin. They loved good food and Pipe-weed. They had curly hair & big, tough-soled feet, on which they rarely wore shoes or boots. They spoke Westron, but with a few words of their own mixed in.
- Main article: Tom Bombadil
Tom Bombadil is an enigma; it is unknown to which of the peoples of Middle-Earth he belonged. He was clearly sentient and humanoid, though immortal and with a power over the elements, similar to that of the Maiar. As to the true nature of Bombadil, Tolkien himself said that some things should remain mysterious in any mythology, hidden even to its inventor.
- Main article: Nameless Things
This strange race were as old as the world itself. They dwelt in the deepest depths of the underground places and gnawed tunnels through the rock.
- Main article: Giants
Giants, also refereed to as Stone-Giants, were presumably a race of huge humanoids. There is some controversy as to whether they actually existed or were merely a poetic description (in the book The Hobbit) of the animating spirit of fierce thunderstorms in the Misty Mountains.
The Enslaved and Evil RacesEdit
- Main article: Orc
Orcs were a race of evil beings first bred by Morgoth from corrupted and tortured Elves. They mostly lived in the darkness in mountain caves because their dislike of sunlight. Many of them lived in the Misty Mountains, while others lived in Mordor. Tolkien occasionally (especially in The Hobbit) called them goblins.
Orcs had many sub-races and dialects, including the Uruk-hai, which were bred by Saruman, and the Goblins of the Misty Mountains. Different tribes had different dialects so they often used Westron to communicate with each other.
- Main article: Troll
Trolls were evil beings formed by Morgoth in mockery of Ents. They generally disliked the sun, and some types of trolls turned to stone on exposure to direct sunlight. Trolls dwelt in the Misty Mountains as well as in Mordor.
Variations of trolls included Rock trolls (known as Attack trolls, the fighting trolls of Mordor), Mountain trolls (the Working trolls of Mordor that), and a variation which was a cross breed of troll and orc (half troll) called the Olog-hai.
- Main article: Olog-hai
Olog-hai were a type of strong troll that could travel and work in sunlight.
The Half-trolls, also know as Troll-men, were a race of troll-like humanoids from Far Harad. They fought for Sauron in the Battle of the Pelennor Fields. Tolkien described them as "black men like half-trolls, with white eyes and red tongues".
- Main article: Balrogs
Balrogs were Maia that were drawn to Morgoth's rebellion against Eru and the Valar.
- Main article: Half-orc
Half-orcs (also known as Orc-men or Goblin-men) were a race bred by Saruman. He created them by crossing Goblins with Dunlendings. They were bigger, stronger, and smarter than Orcs, and were resistant to sunlight.
- Main article: Wolves
Wolves were a large dog-like race. Though not inherently evil; they were often found in the service of the Dark Powers. They probably originated from Rhovanion or perhaps other places as well. They were often allies of Goblins and Orcs. There were common Grey Wolves, domesticated Dogs, Werewolves, Wargs, and White Wolves.
Vampires were evil bat-like creatures who served Morgoth.
- Main article: Dragons
Dragons were great reptiles originally created by Morgoth. They are greedy and have power to match Balrogs.
Main Article: Giant Spiders
Giant Spiders were the Children of Ungoliant. Great Spiders were huge spider like creatures that bred in ancient days in the Beleriand and later lived in Northern Mirkwood. The greatest of their surviving number into the Third Age was Shelob.
Main Article: Wraith