The Haradrim, known in Westron as the Southrons and once as "Swertings" by Hobbits, were the race of Men from Harad in the region of Middle-earth directly south of Gondor. These people were ruled by many and lords, until in time Sauron the Maia corrupted them and called them to war. They were his most notable human ally in the Third Age.


In the Second Age, the Men of Númenor built a great city in the firth of Umbar, a vast natural harbour on the southern shores of the Bay of Belfalas, eventually turning the city into a fortified citadel from whose gates the Men of Númenor could levy great tributes upon many of the tribes of Harad.

For many years, the Haradrim were the greatest enemy of Gondor. Several times, they invaded the north. Finally, the Men of Gondor were able to capture Harad, though it was later freed. During the War of the Ring the Haradrim were allied with Sauron. A Haradrim warrior wounded Faramir. At the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, the 18,000 Haradrim were a great threat to the Rohirrim that had come to aid the people of Minas Tirith. During the onslaught a Haradrim chieftain, who bore the standard of a black serpent on a scarlet field, led the Haradrim cavalry. King Théoden of Rohan slew him in single combat.[1]

Once Sauron was destroyed, the Haradrim, Variags, and Easterlings disbanded from the Black Gates and out of Mordor, and became dispersed.


The name Haradrim means "South-people", from the Sindarin harad ("south") and rim ("host, group").[2]

Their other names were Southerns, Southrons,[2] and Swertings.

Traits and culture

The Haradrim were bold and grim men, fierce in despair. They were tall and dark-skinned with black hair and dark eyes, and for that they were called Swertings or Swarthy Men. The men of Near Harad were brown-skinned, with black hair and dark eyes, while the race known as "half-trolls" out of Far Harad had black skin.[3]

Many Haradrim warriors were seen in bright clothing, such as scarlet robes, and were decorated with golden ornaments, such as collars, earrings, corsets of overlapping brazen plates; they braided their hair with gold. Some tribes painted their bodies. Scarlet and red was also the color of their banners, tips of their spears, and body paint. Their shields were yellow and black with spikes. It is also mentioned that at the end of the Second Age some of the Men in the south had weapons of iron.[4] At the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, the Haradrim bore scimitars that glittered like stars.[3]

The Haradrim had tamed the massive Mûmakil beasts and used them in warfare and, like their masters, were decorated with scarlet and gold. They even strapped towers on their backs, used by Haradrim archers and spearmen.

Harad's tribes included into those of Near and Far Harad, although there were many tribes of the Haradrim, often mutually hostile. Some of the peoples of Far Harad were organized into kingdoms.[5]


To the Men of Gondor, their voices sounded harsh, like shouts of beasts.

The only word which is stated to come from a southron language is "Mûmak", the name of the great war-oliphaunts of Harad.

Gandalf states that his name in "the south" is "Incánus" thought Inkā-nūsh (or possibly Inkā-nūs), meaning "North-spy".

Despite having a meaning in Quenya ("fate"), the name Umbar is said to be adapted from the natives' language, and not from Elvish or Adûnaic.

Military tactics


Haradrim Decipher Card

The Haradrim were said to be skilled horsemen, though not near the prowess of the Rohirrim. They are known to have mounted champions and archers, as well as infantry. Horses fear the Mumakil, and so the Southron forces often rally around them when faced with mounted foes.

Screen shot 2010-12-05 at 5.03.28 PM

An archer atop a Mumak, in the third film

Portrayal in adaptations

Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings

In Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, the Haradrim are inspired by Aztecs and Kiribati tribes, according to the ROTK DVD's Weta Workshop documentary. Their bows, possibly of compound design, were made out of composite materials like antlers and wood and used bamboo arrows from leather or bamboo quivers. The apparent leader of the Haradrim force is killed in the film not by Théoden, but by Éomer.

Video games


  • In Chinese translation, Southrons is translated as "南蠻", which is an ancient rival kingdom near China.


Mumakil 2
The Mûmakil army at the Battle of the Pelennor Fields in Peter Jackson's Return of the King
Desert Warrior
A Haradrim Spearmen
Screen shot 2010-12-11 at 3.01.16 PM
A Haradrim Warrior
Screen shot 2010-12-11 at 3.01.25 PM
A Haradrim Archer on a Mûmakil
Screen shot 2010-12-11 at 3.01.33 PM
Haradrim Warrior in The Two Towers
Screen shot 2010-12-11 at 3.07.46 PM
Haradrim Archer in The Two Towers
The Mûmakil Mahûd Leader in The New Line Film

Translations around the World

Foreign Language Translated name
Amharic ሓራድሪም
Arabic حارادريم
Armenian Հարադրիմ
Belarusian Cyrillic харадрым
Bengali হারাদ্রিম
Bulgarian Cyrillic харадримите
Chinese (Mainland) 哈拉德人 / 南蛮子
Chinese (Hong Kong) 哈化德林人 / 南蠻
Georgian ჰარადრიმ
Greek Χαραδριμ
Gujarati હરદ્રિમ
Hebrew חאראדרימ
Hindi हरद्रिम
Japanese ハラドリム (Haradrim)

南方人 (Southrons)

Kannada ಹರಾದ್ರಿಮ್
Kazakh Һарадрім (Cyrillic) Haradrim (Latin)
Korean 하라ᄃ림 ?
Kyrgyz Cyrillic Hарадрим
Macedonian Cyrillic Харадрим
Malayalam ഹരദ്രി
Marathi हरद्रिम
Mongolian Cyrillic Hарадрим
Nepalese हरद्रिम
Pashto حارادریم
Persian حارادریم
Polish Haradrimowie
Punjabi ਹਰਦ੍ਰਿਮ
Russian Харадрим
Sanskrit हरद्रिम्
Serbian Харадрима (Cyrillic) Haradrima (Latin)
Sinhalese හරද්‍රිම්
Tajik Cyrillic Ҳарадрим
Tamil ஹரத்ரிம்
Telugu హరద్రిమ
Thai หะระดริม
Ukrainian Cyrillic Гарадрім
Urdu حرضوید
Uzbek Ҳарадрим (Cyrillic) Haradrim (Latin)
Yiddish האַראַדרים
The People of Middle-earth

Edain | Dúnedain | Númenóreans | Haradrim | Easterlings | Variags | Northmen | Dunlendings | Drúedain

Vanyar | Ñoldor | Teleri | Sindar | Eldar | Avari

Durin's Folk | Firebeards | Broadbeams | Ironfists | Blacklocks | Stonefoots | Stiffbeards


  1. The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, Book Five, Chapter VI: "The Battle of the Pelennor Fields"
  2. 2.0 2.1 Parma Eldalamberon, Words, Phrases and Passages in Various Tongues in The Lord of the Rings by J.R.R. Tolkien
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named fields
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named rings
  5. J. R. R. Tolkien, The Two Towers, Of Herbs and Stewed Rabbit