Beleriand (Sindarin IPA: [beˈlerjand]) was the region of north-western Middle-earth during the First Age. Originally, the name belonged only to the area around the Bay of Balar, but in time the name was applied to the entire land. The root of the word, Beler/Balar, is believed to refer to the Maia Ossë, who often dwelt at the shores of Balar. The War Of Wrath at the end of the First Age changed that land completely, which is why its shape is not found on Second or Third Age maps.
To the west and south, it had a long shore with the Great Sea Belegaer; to the north were the highland regions of Hithlum, Dorthonion, and the hills of Himring; to the east the Ered Luin (Blue Mountains) reached nearly to the sea. The land of Nevrast in the north-west was sometimes considered part of Beleriand.
The River Sirion, the chief river of Beleriand, running north to south, divided it into West Beleriand and East Beleriand. Crossing it east to west was a series of hills and a sudden drop in elevation known as Andram, the Long Wall. (The river sank into the ground at the Fens of Sirion, and reemerged below the Andram at the Gates of Sirion.) To the east of the Long Wall, was the River Gelion with its six tributaries draining the Ered Luin, in an area known as Ossiriand or the Land of Seven Rivers. The River Brithon and the River Nenning were the two lesser rivers of the western land of Falas.
In the year FA 583, Beleriand was mostly destroyed by the War of Wrath of the Valar against Morgoth. Only a small section of East Beleriand remained, and was known as Lindon. (There is however, some evidence that other parts of it still remained into the Second Age but were completely destroyed with the downfall of Númenor.)
In addition, fulfilling a prophecy, the graves of Túrin Turambar and Morwen survived as the island Tol Morwen. Likewise part of Dorthonion became Tol Fuin, and the Hill of Himring became the island of Himling. All of these together were known as the Western Isles.
The final words of Galadriel to Treebeard at their parting at Isengard "Not in Middle-earth, nor until the lands that lie under the wave are lifted up again. Then in the willow-meads of Tasarinan we may meet in the spring. Farewell!" suggests that Beleriand will be recovered from the Sea again, possibly after the Dagor Dagorath in Arda Healed, since it will be like Arda Unmarred but will contain all the good things of Arda Marred.
Beleriand had many different names in Tolkien's early writings (see: The History of Middle-earth): Broceliand, Broseliand, Golodhinand, Noldórinan, Geleriand, Bladorinand, Belaurien, Arsiriand, Lassiriand, Ossiriand (the latter was later used as a name for another realm).
Regions and kingdoms of Beleriand:
- Forest of Brethil
- Nan-tathren (Land of Willows)
- Talath Dirnen (Guarded Plain)
- Taur-en-Faroth (Forest of the Hunters)
- Ossiriand or Lindon
Cities of Beleriand: